Writing to Thaalam
Siriyapurattal (or Pharans)
Prior to attempting to write music/notes to Thaalam (musical scale) it is important to understand the appropriate Thaalam the music/notes is set to. The below guidance incorporates all the notations used in carnatic music and instructs the user via a step by step process to compile the desired music/notes to the appropriate Thaalam.
The below example of the 32 Adchara (beat) Siriyapurattal (or Pharans) set to Aathi Thaalam Samam shall be used however the same concept can be used to write any music/notes:
Tha,Kum, Tharikida Thakathiku Tharikida
Thalang,ku Tharikida Thakathiku Tharikida
Thathithom, Tham,kida Thakathiku Tharikida
Tham,kida Thakajenu Thakathiku Tharikida
Tham,kida Tha,kum, Tharikida Tham,kida Tha,kum, Tharikida Thakathiku Tharikida
Tham,kida Thakathiku Tharikida Tham,kida Thakathiku Tharikida Thakathiku Tharikida
Thalang,kuthom, Thari Tharikida Thalang,kuthom, Thari Tharikida Thakathiku Tharikida
Thalang,kuthom, Thalang,kuthom, Thalang,kuthom, Thari Tharikida Thakathiku Tharikida
Nakatharikida Thakatharikida Nakatharikida Thakatharikida Thakathiku Tharikida
Nakatharikida Thakatharikida Nakatharikida Thakatharikida Thakathiku Tharikida // Tha
First step - Identify the Thaalam and Angkam
First step is to identify the Thaalam and the Angkam of the Thaalam, once done so the Angkams must be drawn out using vertical lines. End of an Angkam is denoted by a single vertical line and end of an Aavarthanam (one complete cycle of the Thaalam) is denoted by two vertical lines. For ease of writing smaller vertical lines shall be used for each Adcharam (beat of the Thaalam).
The notes in the above example is set to Aathi Thaalam Samam which has one Chathushra Laghu and two Dhruthams and the Thaalam when written down in to appropriate segments will look like this:
Second step - Identify the Nadai
The second step is to identify the Nadai (sub units) of the Thaalam, this does not need to be denoted by vertical lines as it will complicate the diagrammatic representation however it is important to remember that only the appropriate units will fit in each segment therefore it is advised that the sub units be written down as a reminder, the Nadai has not been mentioned in the above notes therefore by default it will be Chathushram (4 sub-units per beat):
Third step - Identify the Kaalam
The third step is to identify the Kaalam (tempo) that the notes are set to. Only when this is understood can the notes be written down as it results in understanding exactly how many syllables fall within each beat. The above example is in second speed (i.e. Dhuritha Kaalam) as the entire notes has a single underline. In normal speed only 4 syllables fit each Adcahram as the Nadai is Chathushram (4) however as the notes are all in second speed 8 syllables will fit instead. Where the notes are a mixture of two Kaalam then the syllables will also need to be divided appropriately however ultimately it can only accommodate a total of 4 Maathiras duration per Adcharam (beat).
Once all of the above have been identified, the segments have been drawn, and reminders have been written (optional) outside the column, the notes can be segregated according to the beat, the final completed piece would appears like this:
It is apparent in the above example that the notes occupy a total of 4 Aavarthanams (4 complete cycles of the Aathi Thaalam), and as Aathi Thaalam has 8 beats in every Aavarthanam this multiplies into the expected 32 Adcharam.
Periyamohra (or Mohra)
The below is an example of how a Periyamohra would appear when written to scale. Similar to the Siriyapurattal the Periyamohra also occupies a total of 4 Aavarthanams of Aathi Thaalam.
The below is an example of how the beginning parts of the Alarippu (a primary Bharathanatiyam item) would appear when written to scale. This part of it occupies a total of 12 Aavarthanams of Thishra Eaka Thaalam Samam.